The hottest technology and capital are the core dr

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Technology and capital are the core driving forces in the era of industry 4.0

at present, it is an era of industry 4.0, which is also the so-called fourth industrial revolution. Marx pointed out that the industrial revolution is not only the rapid improvement of productivity, but also the change of production relations. History will prove that the industrial 4.0 era will be a new round of change in human industrial society. Like the previous three industrial revolutions, technological innovation and financial capital will play a core driving force in the industrial 4.0 era

technology is the primary productive force. It is a common understanding that technological innovation has led to fundamental changes in the traditional value creation system, leading to a new era, which is obvious to all. However, since the first industrial revolution in Britain, another force that has followed has also played an important role, that is, capital. The power of technology and capital has brought unusual changes to the industrial revolution. Moreover, each new industrial revolution has a shorter cycle and faster productivity improvement than the previous industrial revolution

technology is the first driving force

high automation, high informatization and high networking in the era of industry 4.0 will become a new technical standard

according to the definition of industry 4.0 by experts of German industry 4.0 platform, the three industrial revolutions so far have certain technical characteristics. For example, industry 1.0 is characterized by mechanization, industry 2.0 and 3.0 are marked by electrification and informatization respectively, and in industry 4.0, CPS (cyber physical systems) is the core. In popular words, Industry 4.0 is based on the integration of virtual world and physical world

about 250 years ago, the first industrial revolution took place in Britain. At that time, because workers' wages were relatively high, capitalists launched various technological innovations, hoping to solve the problem of workers' higher wages. Britain has indeed found various opportunities for technological innovation. For example, the mechanized textile machine is the most typical representative. The application of mechanization has promoted the wide application of mechanization technology in other fields. In the second industrial revolution, that is, industry 2.0, which is characterized by the wide application of technology represented by electrification. The application of electrification technology is accompanied by the revolution of management and the application of assembly lines in production workshops, which greatly promoted the development of mass production and manufacturing

the subsequent industrial 3.0 is only 50 years ago. The era of industrial 3.0 is an era of extensive application of it. Industrial 3.0 is represented by the embedded system that German enterprises are good at. If we objectively analyze it, because the United States and other traditional industrial powers are busy developing new electronic industry and Internet industry, and pay insufficient attention to traditional machinery manufacturing, Germany, Japan and other countries have strengthened their leadership in the field of traditional industry, Of course, during this period, made in China also gradually rose, which was unexpected for the United States

for the era of industry 4.0, through two years of research, the Institute of industry 4.0 has identified three technical features, namely, high automation, high informatization and high networking, which are referred to as three heights for short. Few experts are believed to oppose automation and informatization, because this is the most prominent feature of the industrial 2.0 and 3.0 era. It can even be considered that since the industrial revolution, we have been pursuing the wide application of automation, such as the machine replacement being carried out in Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Guangdong, which can be considered as the application of automation technology

of course, in order to realize the high efficiency of enterprise management and promote the continuous in-depth application of information systems in enterprises, it is also an important aspect. The application of productive information systems such as MES, ERP, SCM and PLM in factories has brought convenience and possibility to the large-scale production and operation of enterprises. For the third high degree of networking, this is a unique feature of industry 4.0. In popular terms, this is actually the application of Internet technology in the industrial field

when a large number of production and manufacturing equipment are combined with traditional interconnected services (defined as service interconnection in the industrial 4.0 system), it will produce some interesting value creation systems, such as the so-called interconnected factory concept that Haier is practicing, which may be an exploration. The new industrial value ecosystem with CPS technology as the core will present a new scene of value creation. Intelligent products, intelligent manufacturing and intelligent services may become a new industrial manufacturing landscape in everyone's mind, which is quite different from the impression that traditional manufacturing only takes place within the boundaries of workshops

in a word, the high degree of automation, informatization and networking in the era of industry 4.0 will become a new technical standard. Some enterprises that stay in the stage of industry 2.0 or 3.0 will accelerate the automation and informatization transformation. At the same time, some ideal manufacturing enterprises will accelerate their embrace of industrial interconnection technology, and provide customers and consumers with a certain degree of personalized products and additional services by reorganizing the production and manufacturing system, So as to obtain the market pricing power in the era of industry 4.0 and avoid simple price competition

the value of capital driving force

the tuyere known by the public is often due to a large amount of capital inflows, not necessarily the existence of real market demand

when studying the history of the industrial revolution, we often find the existence of entrepreneurship. However, we ask ourselves, what forces promote the emergence of entrepreneurship? The author believes that the emergence of entrepreneurship, to a large extent, is the capital force supporting its continuous innovation, through innovative products and services to occupy the market, to obtain new consumers, so as to achieve excess profits

over the past 30 years, made in China has undergone earth shaking changes. I believe that different experts will draw different conclusions. However, the author finds that because the prices of various production factors in China are relatively low, the entry of various capital brought about by globalization into the Chinese market gives made in China the opportunity to show its skills. Without a large number of profit seeking production and financial capital from the world, it is unlikely that made in China has gone through the history of industrial countries for hundreds of years in just 30 years

in "technological revolution and financial capital", Carol capelace analyzed the relationship between technological change and financial capital. There is no doubt that in the first three industrial revolutions, financial capital has been accompanied by each technological revolution and has become an important driving force. Not only that, Perez also analyzed that when the technological revolution came into being, financial capital was generally crazy, because the current investment may bring great returns, which will encourage capitalists to take risks to invest. In fact, the tuyere known by the public is often due to a large number of capital inflows, not necessarily the existence of real market demand, at least not in the short term

after the big bang in the early stage of a new technological revolution, financial capital will be separated from production capital. The production capital controlled by entrepreneurs will flow 80% of China's credit resources to the state-owned sector, which contributes less than 40% of GDP. More attention will be paid to infrastructure and other investments that can bring competitive advantages to enterprises, and the next demand explosion and the basis of intensified competition. For example, bat companies in the Internet sector have invested heavily in cloud computing, and its business logic is that cloud computing will become the infrastructure of the industrial 4.0 era, which is an indisputable conclusion

according to Peres' analysis of the relationship between technological revolution and financial capital, when the investment but mostly imitation leather capital foam occurs, financial capital will be further combined with production capital. This time, they will cooperate more closely to jointly promote the products and services of enterprises close to the market and obtain direct sales returns, because at this stage, the commercial value of technology has been confirmed, The return risk of capital is also greatly reduced

the author believes that at present, we are still in the early stage of the industrial 4.0 era, that is, the early stage of the big bang in the application of industrial 4.0 technology. Although a large amount of financial capital continues to intervene, there is still a lack of production capital, and the application mode of technology has not been well confirmed, which requires real visionary entrepreneurs to make wise decisions and find a development direction suitable for themselves, It is possible to grasp the development opportunities in the era of industry 4.0

for enterprises that have been listed or on the third board, they already have financing channels and capabilities. They can obtain better valuations through innovation in the field of industry 4.0, and can use additional issuance and other means to obtain the funds needed to expand production. At the same time, they can also use their in-depth understanding of industry 4.0 to acquire some innovative enterprises that can meet their future competitive needs. At the same time of the first industrial revolution in Britain, the London Stock Exchange has always played an important role. It can almost be said that the capital market has been coexisting with the industrial revolution, which has promoted the in-depth development of the industrial revolution

the opportunities in the era of industry 4.0 do not only belong to listed enterprises, but also some ambitious entrepreneurs may have greater opportunities, that is, the opportunity to create a new field. As in the early days of personal computers, traditional IBM could not imagine the widespread existence of personal computers in human society, so it missed the opportunity to provide personal software or components (such as CPU). Bill Gates, a visionary young man at that time, devoted himself to the field of personal software and became a leader in the IT era. In the field of industry 4.0, there will certainly be some value creation systems different from traditional factories. Value can indeed be generated through production and manufacturing, but in the possible future, there may be some industry 4.0 enterprises in the Internet of services (IOS). It may have a deep understanding of production and manufacturing, and also understand the value of consumer interconnection in the new industry zl The positioning of the pull rod fixing device of x 1 two plate injection molding machine in the ecosystem has changed the competition rules in the era of industry 4.0. Such entrepreneurs will certainly appear

in the era of industry 4.0, we need to understand the two core driving forces of technology and capital, which will play a very important role in the evolution of industry 4.0. More importantly, the organic combination of technology and capital may change the current competitive pattern of the manufacturing industry and the Internet, and give new strength to some enterprises that truly understand the laws of industry 4.0, We call this power a new source of competitive advantage. In any case, expect to grasp industry 4 This amendment requires for the first time that entrepreneurs with specific migration of nickel not exceeding 0.02mg/kg0 times development opportunities should not give up innovation, which is undoubtedly a necessary condition for success

introduction to the author Hu Quan, President and chief economist of industry 4.0 Research Institute, focuses on the research on the competition law in the era of industry 4.0, and currently presides over the research and consultation on the technology, mode and strategy related to industry 4.0. As one of the earliest domestic experts to follow up and study the fourth industrial revolution, he is the author of the book "industry 4.0 era: the outlet for creating new industrial value ecology"

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